The third census, taken by the terms of an act of March 26, 1810, stipulated
that the census was to be "an actual inquiry at every dwelling house, or of
the head of every family within each district, and not otherwise" and
commenced on the first Monday of August.
The results of the 1810 census were published in a 180 page volume. Data for the
population were presented by counties and towns in the northern sections of the
country (except New York, which was by counties only), and in Ohio, Kentucky,
and Georgia. The returns for the southern states were limited to counties.
Territories were generally returned by counties and townships.
No additional details concerning the population were collected by the census;
however, an act of May 1, 1810, required marshals, secretaries, and assistants
to take (under the Secretary of the Treasury), "an account of the several
manufacturing establishments and manufactures within their several districts,
territories, and divisions." The marshals collected and transmitted these
data to the Secretary of the Treasury at the same time as the results of the
population enumeration were transmitted to the Secretary of State. No schedule
was prescribed for the collection of industrial data and the nature of the
inquiries were at the discretion of the Secretary of the Treasury.
An act of May 16, 1812, provided for the publication of a digest of manufactures
containing data on the kind, quality,
and value of goods manufactured, the number of establishments, and the number of
machines of various kinds used in certain classes of manufactures. The report,
containing incomplete returns covering these items for more than 200 kinds of
goods and included several items that were principally agricultural, was
published in 1813.
The 1810 census covered the following states:
- District of Columbia6
- Illinois Territory7
- Indiana Territory
- Louisiana Territory5, 6
- Michigan Territory6
- Mississippi Territory6
- New Hampshire
- New Jersey6
- New York
- North Carolina
- Orleans Territory
- Rhode Island
- South Carolina
Schedules for some counties are missing.
4 Virginia included present day West Virginia.
5 Louisiana Territory was renamed Missouri Territory in 1812.
6 Total losses of census occurred with the District of
Columbia, Georgia, New Jersey, Tennessee and the Territories of Indiana,
Michigan, and Mississippi.
7 Partial losses of census occurred with the Illinois
Territory and Ohio.
Found Within the 1810 Census
- Name of Head of Household
- Name of the county, parish, township, town, or city where the family
- Number of free white males and free white females in specific age
- Name of a slave owner and number of slaves owned by that person
- Manufacturing Data
Manufacturing data varied widely in the 1810 census. Congress though issuing
the instructions to collect such data, failed to inform the marshals and their
assistants as to what questions to act. Most of these schedules have been lost,
except for the few that were bound with the population schedules.
Strategy for the 1810 Census
With the census of 1810 began the compilation of manufacturing data. The area
of the census expanded to an additional four states/territories. Otherwise, the
census remained and looked quite similar to the prior one in 1800.
- Establishing the Composition of a Family
While it does not provide names, or exact ages, the 1810 census does
provide an idea of the composition of each family. In it you can find the
number of members of the family, their approximate age, and their sex. By
using other resources, such as vital records, wills, and land records you
can establish further details on each person in the household, and compile
further information like their exact name, birth, marriage and death
- Tracking the Head of Household
The 1810 census provides the name of the head of household. This will
be useful for tracking this family in future census.
- Location of the Household
As in all census, the location of the household at the time the
census was taken becomes a valuable tool for further research allowing you
to concentrate on records of that time period in that particular location.
The 1810 census will provide you the exact county, parish, township, town,
or city where the family resides.
It is possible to identify relatives by looking at the census for
the nearest neighbors to your ancestor. However, in certain cases, the
census was rewritten so that the census appears in alphabetical order2.
Use any livestock information that can be mined from the census to search
further using personal property records.
- Slave Research
Slaves were identified by the number of such in a household.
There were a total of 1,130,781 slaves enumerated in the 1810 census of the
United States3. Researchers who have identified
a slave holder of a possible ancestor should then consult probate or tax
records for possible further identity of specific individuals.
- Native American Research
It is possible to find your Native American ancestor in the 1810
census only if they were residing in an area being taxed. If this is the
case, then your ancestor would be enumerated as any other tax paying citizen
- Manufacturing Data
Very few of the special census for manufacturing survived through
history. Those that did can be found in the appendix of Preliminary
Inventory of the Records of the Bureau of the Census, Preliminary
1810 Census Forms
- Online Census Membership Programs
- Ancestry's 1810
Census Images (requires membership $$$)
- Genealogy.com's Census Images (requires membership $$$)
- Online Census Directories
- Carrol D. Wright and William C. Hunt, The History and
Growth of the United States Census. Government Printing Office: Washington,
DC, 1900. p.17
Source: A Guidebook of American Genealogy, Revised Edition, Edited by
Loretto Dennis Szucs and Sandra Hardgreaves Luebking, 1997. Ancestry, Inc.,
Salt Lake City, Utah.
- Source: Inter-University Consortium for Political and
Social Research. Study 00003: Historical Demographic, Economic, and Social
Data: U.S., 1790-1970. Anne Arbor: ICPSR.
Content for class "tabinfo" Goes Here